Węgiel kamienny GÓRNICTWO ekonomika - Modeling ..
| || |
Modeling transition in the Polish coal industry
The Polish coal industry has been undergoing restructuring to improve its performance in a competitive environment. However, this process has not been without difficulty. Production has moved downwards from an annual average of about 190 million tons in the 1980s to some 130 millions tons in the early 1990s. Fixed prices previously received by coal companies now have fluctuated, while costs have risen dramatically. The coal industry has responded by attempting to downsize its capacity, to increase exports, to reduce employment, to increase productivity and to promote greater coal utilization. The industry is also facing the challenges of the impacts of stronger environmental regulations on coal mining as well as on downstream coal-based utilities and coal-using industries. These kinds of transition difficulties warrant the formulation of a modeling approach that would analyze these and other restructuring policies.
This paper presents the results of a spatial optimization approach which has been designed to meet this need. The modeling framework consists of two-coupled programming models. The first model explains coal production and investment and analyzes decisions related to the closures of unprofitable mines, the construction of new mines, and the installation of beneficiation equipment. In the first model, coal supply from different mines is represented by sets of binary variables, each one assigned to the decision of closing or opening a mine at different points in time. The model also embodies clean coal technologies in the form of coal beneficiation plants on the supply side and emission reduction installations on the demand side. Model convergence or equilibrium takes place when supply and demand capacities are adjusted, so as to keep the emissions below the authorized limit. This equilibrium results from an optimization process based on an objective function which minimizes the costs of supplying coal.
The second model includes the evaluation of coal demand distribution patterns based on a spatial equilibrium optimization procedure. Coal demand determinants include regional demand requirements as well as regional prices and regional environmental standards. The two models although coupled are presently operated sequentially so as analyze the various restructuring policies. The latter include the structure of the coal pricing system, installation of clean coal technologies, coal distribution pattern, the number of mine closures, and changes in environmental standards.
Dodano 2011-04-07 17:38
OD JUTRA (czyli od 08.04 br.) PRZEZ NAJBLIŻSZE 10 DNI BĘDĘ SUKCESYWNIE WYSTAWIAĆ KSIĄŻKI OD 1.00 ... CZYLI TOTALNA WYPRZEDAŻ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ZAPRASZAM !!!
Cytat ze strony: http://allegro.pl/show_item.php?item=1598819990